Geology news

Conifers in the far north that survived the Ice Age

This story is at and begins by saying that it has been assumed that the last Ice Age denuded the Scandinvian landscape of trees until the milder weather of the Holocene kicked in and trees seeded themselves back into the region from somewhere in the south. A paper in Science says this might not actually be true and there were ice free pockets or refuge areas where spruce and pine trees survived - to reseed the areas covered by the ice sheet.

Oxygen Isoptopes

The paper reviewed on the post in front of this (today) at uses high resolution foraminifera based sea temperature data (the shells of plankton) as well as salinity and upper water stratification reconstructions off Cape Hatteras, a region sensitive to thermahaline circulation changes associated with the Gulf Stream.

A fossilised forest

Yes, a whole fossil forest has been discovered - going back millions of years. It was found in the Catskill Mountains in upper New York State and there are hundreds of tree stumps preserved in a sedimentary rock formation that was cut into by quarry workings - see The site is near Gilboa Dam and the forest has taken that name. However, the quarry was back-filled a few years ago but in 2010 it was partially re-opened by construction workers at the dam - and in moved the geologists for a closer look, hot on the heels of the workmen.

Earthquakes and Magnetic Stripes on the Sea Floor

Presentation of science to Joe Public is often jazzed up - in books, on TV and in museum displays and the classroom. Take, for example, sea floor spreading (see page 3 at We are all familiar with the pattern of stripes on the Atlantic sea bed radiating out from the Mid Ocean Ridge. There are diagrams and drawings that have been somewhat set to create that piano key pattern of striping.

From Dartmoor to the Scillies, one slab of granite

In the 'Sunday Times Book of the Countryside' (1983) there is a very nice diagram of the SW peninsular (Cornwall and Devon). It seems that one giant block of granite rises from a single core, or batholith - which reaches down to an unknown depth below the surface. The upper parts of the granite slab protude from the surface on Dartmoor, Bodmin Moor, the hills around St Austell, Lands End ... and the Isles of Scilly.

Climate Change over thousands of years

This post is informative ... see 'Sudden Climate transitions during the Quaternary' ... and is about a whole series of rapid climate transitions over the time span of the last few million years. The most detailed information concerns the YD to Holocene temperature change at 9500BC - which happened very quickly. However, the speed of this change is representative of similar but less well documented climate transitions prior to that date.

The short and the long of the Siberian Traps

A new paper has suggested the Siberian Traps caused a long drawn out mass extinction at the Permian/Triassic boundary - described as a 'mass dying event' by some geologists as a result of so many species becoming extinct - to be replaced during the Triassic by new species that appear to have expanded relatively quickly. However, back in November the timeline of the event was much quicker - see where it is said it took place in the blink of an eye in geological time, a mere 20,000 years.

Gibraltar's bottom waters

At there is a report on research off the coast of Spain near Gibraltar and in the Gulf of Cadiz where sediment cores were drawn up for study. The Strait of Gibraltar re-opened just 6 million years ago, fairly recent in the geological time-scale. Way down on the bottom off Gibraltar the Mediterranean waters are pouring into the Atlantic like a cascade. As the Mediterranean is more salty than the Atlantic it sinks, plunging 1000 metres downslope and scours the sea floor carving out canyons and building up mountains of mud.

Interesting geology on the sea floor

At there is a piece on deep sea vents in the Caribbean - with a difference (published in Nature Communications, January 10th). The vents, or deep sea hot springs we might say, are 5km down in a rift on the Caribbean sea floor. What is novel however is the discovery of 'black smokers', which are vents too, on the upper slope of an undersea mountain which rises 3km from the sea bottom. The mountain formed, it is claimed, when a vast slab of rock was twisted up out of the ocean floor. How did that happen?

The Quasicrystal

A rock from a mineral collection donated to a museum in Florence has an origin in the Koryan mountains in the Kamchatka peninsular. It was recently found to include grains of icosahedrite, a quasicrystalline mineral that was first discovered in a laboratory, according to a paper in PNAS - see It is the inner structure of these minerals that is novel as rather than being clusters of atoms as in ordinary crystals their composition is much more intricate and can form strange shapes such as a 20 sided icosahedron - with the symmetry of a ball.