In mainstream geology the Carboniferous (coal beds) were laid down 300 million years ago. At that time most of the ocean floor did not exist. Some of it did - but mostly, it didn't. What existed was a large continent, Pangeae, composed of all the major land masses of today - joined up. Some of this was covered by a shallow sea - it is thought. The Earth itself was much smaller according to Stephen Hurrell and due to the smaller size the gravity at the surface was much less than today.
In Dinosaurs and the Expanding Earth Stephen Hurrell (One Off Publishing) claims he was intrigued by the fact that dinosaurs were often massive - but so too were other forms of life such as dragonflies and various plants such as giant horsetails and club mosses the size of trees. A geologist, sceptical of the claims, checked out surface gravity during the Permian era and found it was 50 per cent what it is today. According to Hurrell this mans the Earth was smaller in the dinosaur era (which came later) and he decided the Earth must have expanded.
Henry Hoyle Howorth, The Glacial Nightmare and the Flood, ISBN 9781154091298, General Books of Memphis Tennesee (2012). This is a 19th century book that has been scanned and has the odd spelling error which is no problem. It was scanned using character recognition software - which is not perfect. We have found this out at SIS when scanning past issues for our archive.
At http://eos.tufts.edu/varves/Geology/chronology.asp ... an interesting outline on varve chronology and its usefulness in assessing the Late Glacial period and the beginning of the Holocene. The use of varve sequences to establish time lines in sedimentology sequences and for correlation is vital to interpretation of geological beds. Varves are laid down on an annual basis - showing up seasonal changes. They are especially useful in glacial environments as they can establish how long it took for deglaciation events to occur.
Uniformitarian geology is both weird and wonderful - at the same time. Gary Gilligan has sent in a link to www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2705916/Was-Bahamas-created-Saha... ... which begins, the Bahamas may have its origins in iron rich dust blown over from the Sahara desert. Well, a lot of dust does blow in that direction - and across southern Europe (and northern Europe less so). However, the Sahara was not a desert prior to 5000 years ago - so what is going on.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters 209 (2010) page 30-42 is an article on the age and migration of dunes in Antarctica - they are thought to have been caused by sublimation
The Times of July 26th 1970 reported on findings by a group of French oceanographers, and this was that the Atlantic was much smaller in the Jurassic period, 160 million years ago. This is concomitant with continental drift, plate tectonics, and even with the expanding earth theory - so no surprise to a geologist. However, they added - conditions in the embryo Atlantic were similar to those of the Dead Sea in the modern world. It was salty. We may also note the Dead Sea is situated along the Rift Valley system that runs through Africa and the Levant.
At http://geology.gsapubs.org/content/early/2012/03/16/G33117.1.abstract ... we have a large body of sand in the northern region of the North Sea basin which is described as extrusive. Where did it extrude from? There is enought sand there to bury Manhattan Island or the whole of London, under several metres in depth. The sand, it seems, vented to the sea floor during the Pleistocene epoch. Does vent imply pump out of the ground?
For some parts of the Pleistocene the North Sea basin was dry land - probably for most of the time.
At www.livescience.com/46292-hidden-ocean-locked-in-earth-mantle.html ... there is a report on another study that has found an awful lot of potential water between the Mantle and the crust. In January, a team from Liverpool University published a paper on the same subject. In the latest paper, in the journal Science, it is thought Plate Tectonics plays a role, moving water from the Mantle region to the surface (as a result of subduction). The process is hypothetical - and so is subduction, as all this takes place 400 miles below the surface.
At http://wattsupwiththat.com/2014/06/12/climate-change-its-the-motions-of-... .... there is an interesting paper in the journal Science that claims a link between climate change and ocean currents over the past six million years. The area studied was the Atlantic at the Straits of Gibraltar. Sea bed sample were taken of the sediments and this indicates, they say, various shifts of climate change. However, it is the thick layer of sand and mountains of mud spewed nearly 100km into the Atlantic from the Gibraltar gateway that is most fascinating.