The difference between research into co2 driven climate change then and now is a feature of Steve McIntyre at http://climateaudit.org/2013/07/26/guy-callendar-vs-the-gcms/
At www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-226&cid=release_2013=226 ... there is a report on two papers concerning the atmosphere of Mars as collated by NASAs Curiosity Rover - taking samples and measuring abundances of different gases and isotopes. Isotopes are variants of the same chemical element - such as carbon 12 and carbon 13. The instrument onboard looked at ratios of heavy to lighter isotopes of carbon and oxygen.
A brilliant post at http://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/06/18/chronology-ice-cores/ ... which targets consensus geochronology. Anyone even faintly having recourse to the dating of rock strata will have a bit of empathy with author - but then again, maybe not. The system goes back to the Victorian era, or a bit before that. William Smith (famous for his ding dong with someone that disagreed with him) 1769-1839, drew some of the first geological maps and began the process of making sense and order, as he saw it, out of various rock strata.
For centuries, a consensus theory ruled the roost, as science (a generalisation) had known that a piece of glass could be made to produce a spectrum of colours when sunlight was poured through it. From Aristotle onwards it was considered that this took place because pure celestial light (or white light) was changed by contact with a terrestrial substance. At the age of 24, Isaac Newtone set about debunking this consensus chestnut (as they say).
Obviously, one might say. You could hardly imagine them with a spanner in the hand and the bonnet open. No, this is more to do with mechanical thinking as opposed to creating mathematical explanations for the cosmos and how it is perceived to work. The idea of warping space and time is a mathematical trick according to the author at http://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/05/20/mechanical-principles-in-physi...
Ignoring the fact the weather is far from hot, global warming is still the chosen field for throwing money at - and one of the latest offerings is a study published in the International Journal of Modern Physics B (at the end of May, 2013) see http://phys.org/print289149026.html. It claims that Chloroflourocarbons are to blame for global warming in the 1970s to 1990s, an apparent about face. However, the intriguing point they claim as evidence is that a worldwide UN ban on the use of these CFCs has resulted in the cooling witnessed in the 2000s.
An interesting post at http://malagabay.wordpress.com/2013/04/15/why-the-sky-is-blue/ ... which according to Wikipedia, and various others, the sky is blue because air scatters short wavelength light more than longer wavelenths. The human eye perceives the colour blue when looking at the sky rather than at the Sun (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffuse_sky_radiation ... which implies the Wikipedia editor has forgotten that Indigo and Violet have shorter wavelengths than blue light.
A paper in Nature by Tobias and Cettaneo is discussed at http://tallbloke.wordpress.com/2013/05/steve-tobias-rediscovering-the-so... ... which claims researchers at Leeds and Chicago universities have discovered a mechanism behind the generation of magnetic fields such as that of the Sun. The solution is a solar dynamo. It also takes into account plasma - which is ionised gas. Steve Tobias is from the University of Leeds School of Mathematics.