Comets or Volcanoes

Robert sent in the links - ... and ... which was featured in a post a while back. However, as Peter disagrees with the idea of water with an origin inside the earth it is worth repeating the subject matter - and no doubt many others are baffled by the idea.

Malta Prehistory

Jovan sent in this link a few weeks ago and I've only just got around to reading it - and that is only the Introduction to the book. Michael Hughes Clarke, 'Natural Events in Malta's Prehistory' - and concerns not just the Temple building period but the Neolithic as a whole (stretching back to around 5000BC). The temple building people it is thought, disappeared in the mid to late 3rd millennium BC.

Comet 67P

It seems Comet Churyumov Gerasimenko (or Comet 67P in shorthand), the target of the ESA Rosetta Mission that dominated the astronomy news in 2015 is still fascinating scientists (now producing their write ups from the data). One outburst of dust involved a landslide on the comet. When it rounded the Sun in 2015 cliffs collapsed and ripple like features about 100m across appeared and disappeared, dust eroded and boulders rolled around on the surface. The mainstream view is that this occurred as a result of increased sunlight and warmth (affecting ices under the surface).

Sun, Weather and Climate

The book, 'Sun, Weather, and Climate' (2005) by John R Herman and Richard A Goldberg is a reprint of a book originally published in 1978. It was reprinted on two occasions and published in Russian and Chinese, and seems to have become a classic of its kind, a forerunner of modern climate research. It is of great interest in the study of Earth's climate - hence the need to flag it up again (as I had a post in 2013 on the same book). William provided the link below.

Mars and the K/T

Gary sent in the link, ... the word 'about' is as big as you want to make it - and here may lie an explanation. Mars volcanoes and earth's K/T boundary event occurred at 'about' the same time. However, digging into the article we find the volcanoes were still active until 50 million years ago (and possibly much later than that) where the K/T event and the extinction of the dinosaurs is normally dated to around 65,000 years ago.


Grasses have an ability to conserve water in their leaves. They can also absorb carbon dioxide without losing any water. Grasses are well equipped to deal with rapidly changing weather and strong winds, the kind that sweep across plains, praire and steppe environments. It would be also true to say that herbivores adapted to eating rough grasses, as well as seeking out the sweet grasses.

Water Fractals

   ... winding waterways - captured from space. This example comes from Egypt.

Physics and river flow - and fractals. The subject of a new book by Sean Fleming, 'When the Rivers Flow' (Princetown University Press) - the physical forces that water exerts on its surrounding landscape. The author uses physics to explain. See


The good side of midges is explored at ... ecologists have been studying midges in Wisconsin and Iceland. There are 15,000 lakes in Wisconsin and a third of the State lies within 200m of a lake or stream. Biting midges terrorise tourists and walkers in western Scotland (and horse flies in England) - so what use are these insects?

Rethinking Human Evolution

The headline should be - rethinking some aspects of human evolution. At ... and I suppose the problem can be laid at Uniformitarian principles, progress in small steps, from primitive thinking to sophisticated behaviour. Palaeoanthropologists have long cast their eye upon stone tools as a means of evaluating human progress (on the evolutionary scale that primitive is almost always older than the better examples of manufacture).

BBC Climate Change

The Daily Express, a UK newspaper with a beef as far as the BBC are concerned, as the Express supports Brexit and the BBC is still resisting the proposal, has published an article with the title, '£8bn BBC eco bias' - striking parallels between the BBCs rabid coverage of man made global warming/ climate change, and the investments in its pension funds - go to