At ... the mechanism for photosynthesis existed in primeval microbes. Will this put an end to the idea of earth as a satellite of Saturn? Thunderbolts and the Saturn Theory are like a hand and a glove but what does this study mean for the idea of solar system re-arrangement. Photosynthesis creates oxygenised carbohydrates such as glucose from solar energy, water, and co2 (carbon). It is indispensable for many species on this planet.

Dinosaur ribbing

At ... which concerns the discovery of a dinosaur rib bone in Yunnan Province in China that contained proteins inside the vascular canals (where blood vessels and nerves would have been present when it was alive). This is a remarkable find as fossilised bone is usually rock like. Organic matter is normally decomposed. It is therefore a surprising discovery - and useful (as it will enable scientists to understand dinosaur make up).

Seeding the Moon

A ... the Japanese moon orbiting spacecraft, Kaguya, has found evidence of oxygen from Earth's atmosphere ending up on the surface of the moon for a few days each month. The moon is continually bombarded by particles from the solar wind but once a month the earth is situated between the moon and the sun. It is therefore temporarily protected from the solar wind - but just for a few days each month. At the same time it seems that oxygen ions from earth are able to invade the moon.


The ice sheet on Antarctica formed at the boundary of the Eocene and Oligocene epochs which is dated at 34 million years ago on the geology chronology of the earth. No mention is made as to what occurred at the boundary. If it was this would be logged under 'catastrophism' rather than geology. There are two theories - or two theories exist that mainstream is prepared to seriously consider. The first is based on climate change.

Lost Continent

Nice picture of a beach in Mauritius, an island in the Indian Ocean and a popular holiday destination ...

Microbes in Space

Gary sent in this link (aliens in the comments so beware). At ... we have a report on an experiment by students from the University of Houston. They are going to release high altitude balloons in the upper atmosphere fitted with a devilish device. This will open as the balloons reach a high enough point in the atmosphere and close on the descent. The hope is to avoid contamination of samples. They intend to reach altitudes of 18km to 50km (11 to 31 miles in old money). 

asteroid you didn't see

Whilst the media was all lathered up yesterday an asteroid passed by the earth six times closer than the earth. Go to ... good job William was paying attention. Another fly-by that wasn't seen until the last minute.

Earth Rings

If earth had rings, the title of a You Tube video. Moe Mandelkehr thought earth may well have had a temporary ring around it as the theme is strong in mythology. See

Auroch with dots

  ... this is a piece of art from a rock shelter in the Pyrenees which is thought to date back to 38,000 years ago - about the time it was all going wrong for megafauna in Australia and Neanderthals and big mammals in Euroasia. You can just make out an auroch - a large bull with horns. What connection might worship, or portrayals of the bull in rock art have to do with the Taurids (the bull in the sky)?

Polish and the Taurids

At,4128a3,taurids-can-be-a-sourc... ... Back in the 1990s David Asher of the Armagh Observatory studied the Taurids as part of his work on a doctorate. He noted that sometimes observers reported on Taurid maximums (higher density than at other times) that contained a large number of very bright meteors.