Sam Carey

Australian geologist Sam Carey, in the 1930s, explored the continental drift theory of Alfred Wegener, which in those days was regarded as junk science. Carey took the trouble to build a model of a globe on which he could move around the continents as part of Wegener's theory was the single land mass known as Pangaea. He realised the continents would fit together if the Earth was smaller. If it was shrunk enough it all slotted together like a jigsaw puzzle - but it would mean doing away with the ocean basins.

Patten on Ionic Rain

Thunderbolts for October 6th is 'I'm singeing in the rain' and is about charged water molecules interacting with Saturn's ionosphere - ionic rain from Saturn's Rings. These are one of the unusual and unexpected findings of the Cassini Mission which has interesting equipment onboard in order to study plasma and electromagnetism.

Cracks in the Earth's Surface

At ... in Ethiopian a large crack opened up in the crust of the Earth in just a few days in 2005. At the time geologists became very excited as it was thought this was an embryo rift valley that would end up splitting Africa asunder and give birth to a new sea. That was of course as a result of consensus Plate Tectonics - the mainstream theory on how oceans form from rifts and faults, expanding into mid ocean ridges etc.

Fluid Dynamics

Tim Cullen is turning his attention to fluid dynamics but not sure what the end result will be - go to ... which may have repercussions on a lot of things we take for granted. He says there is no settled science involved because of natural complexities recognised by physicists, as such, and the use of approximations and exceptions and various controversies that have developed over the years. A good science subject then.

small galaxies and dark matter

At ... is an article on the discovery of a couple of very small galaxies in the vicinity of the Milky Way that appear to be dim as they were not spotted by less powerful technology. Immediately they are being explained - as if they have to bed into the consensus model. They were looking for clumps of dark matter and found these fuzzy looking small galaxies. The big question is why they did not become larger galaxies - much brighter and visible.

Bolides over Southern Europe

At ... she describes the coincidence of a bolide lighting up the night sky at roughly the same time as a Near Earth asteroid passed relatively close to the Earth. This she compares with the Chelyabinsk meteor of February 2013 which also coincided with a close flyby of a Near Eart Object (an even bigger asteroid passing close to the Earth). It's all a bit of a mystery. The Chelyabinsk meteor was said to be a coincidence - but do such coincidences come in pairs?

Volcanic Fingerprints

Each volcanic eruption gives birth to a unique signature in the composition of the ash and in the glass shards that lodge within soil. Even eruptions from the same volcano have different chemical elements, even down to the shape of the shards. A volcano in Alaska that blew in the 9th century AD has a distinctly high chlorine content and this has helped identify its fingerprint across Europe and northern N America - see The research was done at Queens University Belfash.

Birkeland Currents

We are used to reading about Birkeland Currents at Thunderbolts and the various plasma based web sites but they are now part of mainstream - go to

Subhasis Sen

Subhasis Sen is the author of 'Decoding the Solar System' (2011), a retired Indian geologist. He has taken an especial interest in the geology of Gondwanaland (the southern half of Pangea) from which he developed an expanding earth theory based on global tectonics. He has used this research into earth geology to take a different approach to solar system geology, a novel approach, or projection.