Halton Arp

Book out on Halton Arp. It includes the story of his disagreement about the nature of red shift. The editors are Martin Kokus and Christopher Fulton. The title is 'The Galileo of Palomar: essays in memory of Halton Arp' priced at £10.50 on Amazon. Robert Farrar provided the link - www.amazon.co.uk/Galileo-Palomar-essats-memory-Halton/dp/1987980077/ref=... ....

Sahara Sand

Gary Gilligan sent in this link to www.godkingscenario.com/blog/sand-sahara-come   ... which concerns his book, 'Extraterrestrial Sands'. The link provides a series of images of sand in the deserts of the world. He points out that from a landscape of lakes and savannah grassland, in the first half of the Holocene period, the Sahara degenerated into a dry and very arid swathe or band that stretched right across North Africa into the Arabian peninsular and even as far as the Thar Desert in India. Where did all that sand come from?

Skull Cult

At https://anthropology.net/2017/06/29/gobekli-tepe-skull-cult/ ... Gobekli Tepe pillars have carvings of headless humans, and animals ...

Avebury

Avebury stone circle is far the more visitor friendly than Stonehenge. It is so large a village encroaches within it - but a lot of the stones are missing. There are some good stories abroad concerning the fate of the stones but clearly some were simply buried. Others were broken up and used in walls and houses in the village and on nearby farms. A somewhat zealous cleric was involved in the destruction of some of the stones - but that is a story for another day. All this took place in the 17th and 18th centuries and it is thought the circle was fairly intact up until then.

Fire Use

At https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/quest-for-clues-to-humanitys-... ... is an interesting read - if only to illustrate how difficult it is to establish between natural fire (such as lightning and landscape blazes), and human induced fire (such as camp and hearth fires). It is thought by some archaeologists that fire use may go back to Homo erectus. Strangely, there appears to be a lot of scepticism towards an early date for making fires - some archaeologists even think Neanderthals could not light their own fires.

Water inside the earth

At https://phys.org/news/2017-06-mid-mantle-earth-oceans.html ... Japanese and German researchers have found evidence that suggests the middle of the Mantle may hold as much water as the oceans on the surface. That is a lot of water. The experiment and research was published at Science Advances (an open access site) and involves the minerals wadsleyite and ringwoodite, thought to exist in quantity in the middle Mantle zone, and experiments how these minerals can absorb water.

Collapsing Ice Sheet

At https://phys.org/print417760283.html ... scientists have constructed 'in detail' the collapse of the Euroasian ice sheet at the end of the Late Glacial Maximum and it final moments involved the flooding of the English Channel 10,000 years ago. We are told the ice sheet was massive, stretching from the tip of SW Britain to Franz Josef Land in the Siberian Arctic. We are also told it lowered global sea levels by 20m. As it melted, and collapsed, it caused severe flooding across Europe - and a dramatic rise in sea levels.

Electric Comets

At www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2017/06/19/history-of-electric-comet-theory-an-... ... by Hannes Tager, is an enlightening piece of research as it lists a number of scientists that in the 17th and 18th centuries were theorising about electricity in the solar system and its bodies. These include William Gilbert (1544-1603), Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Thomas Gray (who died in 1736) and Hugh Hamilton (1727-1805). The latter was a mathematician, natural philosopher, and at the same time a Church of Ireland Bishop of Ossory in Dublin.

Beefs

All beefs come back to climate change - even when they don't at first appear to have a connection. At www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/Articles_2011/Fall-2011/Carbonate_Solutio... ... the issue, or the big beef, is how dangerous is radiation. In a nutshell, levels of radiation differ. What level is tolerable and what level is intolerable. This is an interesting debate as at www.spaceweather.com students in the US have been conducting experiments with baloons that rise into the upper atmosphere to measure radiation levels.

El Khawy

      A newly discovered panel of rock art is thought to contribute to an understanding on how heiroglyphic signs developed. A modicum of scepticism is in order - although one might think old ideas contributed to the new idea of sign language (or writing in the Egyptian style) - see https://phys.org/print417674434.html. In this instance, a bull's head on a pole and a back to back saddleback stork and a bald iris are depicted.