Magnetic Pigs

At ... some fish have evolved the ability to live on land, such as blennies. One can see fish adapting in an environment of seasonal water holes or streams that dry up in high summer. Sme of them of course bury themselves in the mud at pond and lake bottoms - waiting for the rains to come round again. On islands the situation differs and it seems blennies can live in water and on dry land - which is quite remarkable.

sugary meteorites

Sugars in meteorites - go to ... a paper published in PNAS (June 2016) has been looking at carbonaceous meteorites - so called chemical time capsules. It is assumed they formed at the beginning of the universe (following Big Bang). Researchers from NASA have analysed sugar acids and sugar alcahols in meteorites. The paper describes the research and its conclusions

Expanding Planet

A real life expanding planet has been found - who says an expanding earth is out of the question? Go to ... Expanding planets have been known about by astronomers for nearly 20 years (but nobody seems to have told the geologists). What causes them to expand is a mystery. The planet in question appears to be a giant gas type similar, shall we say, to Jupiter. Can gas giants expand but rocky ones not so?

Cretaceous Warming

One feature of geology that seems to have become entrenched in recent years is the idea that during the Cretaceous era global warming was rampant. Initially, this was theorised in order to explain trees growing on Ellesmere Island and other unlikely places where it is dark for almost six months of the year. It also explained the apparent semi tropical habitat that appears to have prevailed in southern Britain, and so on. At ... this is expanded to inlcude palms growing in Canada and lily pads within the Arctic Circle etc.

Water Planet

More evidence of the dominance of water on our planet - see .... and the missing words to that are 'without water'. A study in June's issue of PNAS provides evidence that proteins are folded by smaller water molecules. Protein molecules fall into particular shapes to enable biological reactions - but they can't fold themselves. Water molecules are able to do that for them - and the process has been observed (it would seem).

Plate and Saucer

Plate Tectonics wasn't always accepted without question. There was a time when some geologists were more than a trifle sceptical. A paper published in 1972 illustrates some of the problems inherent within the new theory - go to ... Objections to Continental Drift and PlateTectonics.pdf

Surviving molecules

Not sure if this is biology or geology or physics but catastrophism seems to cover it. Robert Farrar sent in the link ... with the comment - well preserved 1.88 billion years old molecules from NW Ontario have been found. He asks can biomolecules really survive that long or are the rocks not really that old?

stone age Gobi

At,410066,archaeologist-many-tho... ... life flourished not just in the Gobi but in the Mongolian Gobi (and the Altai mountain region). The Gobi is the second largest desert in the world - but that was not always so. Nowadays, where only nomadic people live on the fringes of the Gobi, the region was full of humans and abundant wildlife (anaimals and vegetation).

Black Hole jets

At ... a paper in the Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (Oxford University Press, June 2016) concerns a simulation of the powerful jets ejected by supermassive black holes at the centre of large galaxies. Some 10 per cent of galaxies (assumed to have black holes) have jets of gas spouting in the opposite direction from the core. Hot ionised gas (plasma) is propelled outwards 'by the twisting magnetic fields of the rotating black hole.' You may note that streams of plasma coming from the Sun are produced within the Sun, a star.


Testosterone and its effects on evolution - go to ... another kind of change to the pure Darwinian model of evolution is being suggested - and one that involves testosterone levels. Animals with high testosterone have an edge on those of their own species with a more relaxed attitude to mating, display, and the competition for food resources.