Grasses have an ability to conserve water in their leaves. They can also absorb carbon dioxide without losing any water. Grasses are well equipped to deal with rapidly changing weather and strong winds, the kind that sweep across plains, praire and steppe environments. It would be also true to say that herbivores adapted to eating rough grasses, as well as seeking out the sweet grasses.

Water Fractals

   ... winding waterways - captured from space. This example comes from Egypt.

Physics and river flow - and fractals. The subject of a new book by Sean Fleming, 'When the Rivers Flow' (Princetown University Press) - the physical forces that water exerts on its surrounding landscape. The author uses physics to explain. See


The good side of midges is explored at ... ecologists have been studying midges in Wisconsin and Iceland. There are 15,000 lakes in Wisconsin and a third of the State lies within 200m of a lake or stream. Biting midges terrorise tourists and walkers in western Scotland (and horse flies in England) - so what use are these insects?

Rethinking Human Evolution

The headline should be - rethinking some aspects of human evolution. At ... and I suppose the problem can be laid at Uniformitarian principles, progress in small steps, from primitive thinking to sophisticated behaviour. Palaeoanthropologists have long cast their eye upon stone tools as a means of evaluating human progress (on the evolutionary scale that primitive is almost always older than the better examples of manufacture).

BBC Climate Change

The Daily Express, a UK newspaper with a beef as far as the BBC are concerned, as the Express supports Brexit and the BBC is still resisting the proposal, has published an article with the title, '£8bn BBC eco bias' - striking parallels between the BBCs rabid coverage of man made global warming/ climate change, and the investments in its pension funds - go to

South Georgia

At ... South Georgia achieved fame in the 1970s when it became involved in the Falklands war. In this instance a paper in Nature Communications says South Georgia was covered in ice during the Late Glacial Maximum. Ice also extended well beyond the island according to the team of researchers that investigated the area in ice breakers.

Glacial Outburst Flood

William sent in a link to a video of catastrophic moving water, some 2 million cubic metres spilling down towards the village of Chukhung in Nepal last year (2016) - go to


Look at the links from the earlier post on Fossils (yesterday). At ... we find the ancient fish fossil found in southern China probably came from the back end of the Silurian period (which preceded the Devonian which is well known for the number of jawed fishes found in fossil beds). The Silurian period is not overly endowed with fish fossils but the Chinese is the second one in recent finds. However, there were fragmentary pieces of what looks like fish in the Silurian, most notably at the end of Silurian extinction event.


Upsetting Einstein's 'theory of gravity' is the headline at ... This follows research at the University of St Andrews (and elsewhere in Europe as it was a joint effort) which found a ring of small galaxies moving away from our galaxy at a faster rate than expected. They are expanding so rapidly it has been labelled a mini version of Big Bang.

Update on co2

On the same theme as the piece a few days ago on carbon dioxide, William sent the following link to a piece published in the Boston Globe. See ... the opinion is that of 'Jacoby on Climate Change'

See  also