At https://phys.org/news/2023-08-archaeologists-refute-comet-destroyed-hopewell.html … a group of archaeologists, it seems, have refuted the idea that a comet, but probably a meteor, was responsible for the demise of the Hopewell culture. This follows a 2022 article in Scientific Reports that claimed one exploded over what is now Cincinnati, around 1500 years ago. One may notice, straightaway, this period, between 500 and 600AD, was a climatic downturn. So, something was going on. Normally, it is attributed to a volcanic eruption that injected large amounts of sulphur into the upper atmosphere. Mike Baillie showed, in his book, The Celtic Gods, that it could equally have been a meteor, or meteors. One may also take note of the fact that the Tall el-Hammam meteor explosion over the cities of the Plain, is also a claim that is strongly resisted. The ongoing claims and counter claims over the Younger Dryas impact theory is also evidence that such events are heavily resisted by mainstream scientists. The idea that such catastrophes even happen, at any time, is severely disliked. Even though near earth objects are crossing the path of earth’s orbit on a monthly basis. According to Kenneth Tankersley, the author of the 2022 research paper, the airburst brought the Hopewell culture into terminal decline. Note, he did not say it brought it to an end. The authors of the 2023 article make a grand display of this – making the strong point that Hopewell did continue. Not, however, as dominating as it had been. We must also bear in mind, that societies in different parts of the world, such as in India, China, and the Near and Middle East, also fell into decline in the 6th century AD. Not necessarily into terminal decline – but somewhat similar to the decline and re-emergence as in other locations. A volcanic effect on the climate is one possibility – a big volcano, perhaps. However, an earth crossing swarm of meteors would also fit the situation.
I haven’t read much about the Ohio River valley event [the Hopewell event, if you like], but the new paper does make a strong argument against it. Their main gripe, however, which is always suspicious in these circumstances, is that the evidence is not strong enough. Not that the evidence does not exist. This is essentially the problem with airburst events. Archaeologists don’t look for them – therefore they did not happen. Who knows. Airburst archaeology is in its infancy.
At https://phys.org/news/2023-08-archaeologists-uncover-europe-oldest-stilt.html … the oldest village built on stilts, on a lake shore, lies beneath the blue waters of a lake in Albania. The shoreline once hosted a settlement on stilts – 8,000 years ago. Shortly after early farmers first entered the Balkans from what is now Turkey. C14 dating set it at between 6000 and 5800BC. Similar villages on stilts were built in the Alps, dating from around 5000BC. Some 100 thousand wooden spikes were driven into the mud at the bottom of the lake. It is not entirely clear what they were designed for, but the feeling is that it was to deter an attack by hostiles. Presumably, the locals.