In The Times January 10th 2014, the Red Knecked Phalorope spends the summer months gobbling midges in Scotland but it spends the winter in a different place to its brethren in Scandinavia and Russia. They take the route south to the Arabian Sea. The Scottish birds, instead, fly west, first to feed on plankton in Canada, and then via the Caribbean and central America, to Ecuador and Peru. As they appear to join up with N American birds it may be that the Scottish birds were originally of that gang but for some reason migrated further to the east – but instead of becoming good Europeans every year they meet up with their former chums.
In the same issue of The Times ice melt in Alaska has uncovered the former village of local eskimo – under the ice for between 700 and 400 years. This was the height of the Little Ice Age and appears to confirm it was much warmer in the medieval period