Archaeology news

Americans

At https://phys.org/print412432801.html ... we learn that humans were in the Americas 115,000 years earlier than thought. This is roughly during the last interglacial episode. Where was the equator? Mastodon bones found in southern California are the key. Teeth and bones of mastodon appear to have been modified by human hands - code for being whacked with a big stone (known as a hammer stone). Hammer stones were found at the site, it is alleged, and an anvil (code for a much bigger stone on which the bones were propped before giving a good bashing).

Otzi Froze

We already know that Otzi the iceman froze as he was engulfed in an Alpine mountain glacier - but at www.sciencenews.org/article/otzi-iceman-froze-death ... tells us that this was the main reason why he died, rather than from an arrow wound in his shoulder. It seemed he probably suffered just minor blood loss from the wound and succumbed to exposure. Freezing was the main cause of death.

Hillforts in Perthshire

William sent in the link to https://phys.org/print411984420.html ... a digital online source enables interested parties to look at ten hillforts, and archaeological exploration and finds within them, situated in eastern Strathearn in Scotland. The project is the Strathearn Environs and Royal Forteviot (SERF) Project, and has been set up by Glasgow University. The research began as long ago as 2007 - so expect a bit of information. The excavation report has not been published as yet but the app can be downloaded to keep you abreast of what is going on now.

Cornish Caymans

Another piece from The Times (full of almost useless bits of information) in April and concerns the inhabitants of the Cayman Islands. They were devoid of humans until a 17th century Cornishman decided to set up his stall on what is now a haven for the mega rich, bods with gold plated pensions, and tax evaders of all kinds from the wider western world. His surname was Bodden (or Bawden) and he participated in the Anglo Spanish war of the 17th century. He was one of Cromwell's marines, we are told.

Swiss Shepherds

Shepherds, or goatherds come to that, go back a very long way, even in the heart of Europe. At www.swissinfo.ch/eng/prehistoric-farming-7000-years-ago--on-a-swiss-alp/... ... we learn that Swiss shepherds, around 5000BC, shifted their animals to high pastures, into mountain valleys (some of which have been covered by glaciers until recently). Pasture was sought out at 2750m above sea level in the SW region of the Alps. Glaciers have come and gone on a number of occasions. For instance, during the Roman period glaciers had retreated much further than today.

Corded Ware Culture

At https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-04/fos--smt040217.php ... the period, 2300-2000BC was not just one of turmoil and upheaval, with evidence of site destruction far and wide, including earthquakes and perhaps atmospheric explosions of meteors, it was also one of migration and plague. This is too early for most books on historical epidemics to mention (they usually begin with the Bible or Roman records) but we have seen previously that plague or epidemics were a feature of the period around 3000BC also.

King Solomon's Mines

At http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/king-solomon-mines-bible-timn... ... it seems archaeologists came across some donkey manure dating back 3000 years ago, preserved in the arid environment of the Timna Valley. It had accumulated in an ancient mining camp at the back of a mesa like sandstone formation known as Slaves Hill. They were probably pack animals used to transport the metal and ores - and bring in supplies to the miners. The area is peppered with copper mines and smelting sites (where the ore was heated and the metal extracted).

Fluting Flint

At https://phys.org/print410541003.html ... it seems Clovis Points, which are fluted, are still a problem for archaeology. What was the reasoning behind the fluting of flint points? Clovis points date from around 13,500 years ago - and disappeared at the Younger Dryas boundary. The flute is the groove chipped off the base of the point, on both sides. It seems that this thinning action, rather than weakening the points, actually is able to make the point more powerful in that it is able to withstand and absorb the shock of colliding with a hard object, such as the bones of a prey animal.

Chariot Burial

At www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/iron-age-chariot-horse-yo... ... in the foothills of the Yorkshire Wolds, on the outskirts of the market town of Pocklington, a chariot burial (with horse remains) has been unearthed. Two horses pulled the chariot.

Danes

Danish Vikings - why they moved to England - see http://sciencenordic.com/why-danish-vikings-moved-england/ ... as many as 35,000 Danes decided to seek pastures new in the 9th and 10th centuries AD (a sort of re-enactment of the Anglo Saxon invasions - with an origin in Denmark and NW Germany).  They were interested at first in portable treasures - especially gold and silver owned by the Church. After a while they settled and established the Danelaw - a sizable chunk of eastern England. Canute was king of England and king of Denmark.