Geology news

Kaolin

Scientists claim to have created conditions similar to a so called subduction zone. The transport and release of water during subduction processes is thought to cause volcanic - see article in Nature Geoscience (November 2017) and go to https://phys.org/print430401008.html ... As a continental plate slides beneath oceanic crust (or vice versa) it moves into the Mantle - including various minerals and sediments from the ocean bottom. Over time these transform into different compounds but during the process sea water is released from the oceanic crust - inside the Mantle.

Expanding Earth - for and against

At www.xearththeory.com/expanding-earth-theory-debunked/  ... and www.xearththeory.com/ we have two sides of the argument - with links to papers debunking the idea, and opposite, links to papers enthusiastic of the concept. www.thunderbolts.info ... also had a tpod presentation on the expanding earth idea. However, it might be worth considering why plate tectonics does not exist on other planets (as visited by spacecraft recently). Why only the earth? Might it be that earth is occupied by humans and they are highly inventive.

Antarctic Forest

At www.livescience.com/60944-ancient-fossil-forest-discovered-in-antarctica... ... a forest that seems to have been fossilised (growing wood turned to stone) at the end of Permian event has been discovered in the Transantarctic Mountains. What is peculiar is that the press release or study assumes the trees were growing at the South Pole at the time, suggesting they somehow coped with living with 6 months of darkness and 6 months of daylight.

Salt Pond

Research in the Transantarctica Mountains has also thrown up another geological oddity - a pond with one of the saltiest bodies of water on the planet. It is filled with a dense syrupy brine rich in sodium chloride that can remain a liquid well below the freezing point of water ...

A Bend in the Pacific

At https://phys.org/print429517702.html ... Hawaii sits at the end of a chain of volcanoes running across the Pacific ocean floor. In the middle of this chain there is a sharp bend of 60 degrees - which geoscientists have struggled to explain, or so we are told in the press release. Research from the University of Oslo now suggest a collision event at the edge of the Pacific plate may be to blame. They arrived at this idea by sticking closely to the orthodox song sheet.

Pacific Basin Anomaly

This one came from an article in American Scientist (volume 105) which was provided by Jovan. Soon after 19th century cartographers captured the relative locations of Hawaii's volcanoes they became aware they lay on two roughly parallel tracks. Since then double tracked volcanoes have been found elsewhere in the Pacific basin. Not only that, they all seem to have switched location between 2 and 4 million years ago. Why? It is now thought Earth's largest tectonic plate, the basin of the Pacific Ocean, started to change direction at this time.

Plates

Robert sent in this link - go to www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4998508/Scientists-create-incred... ... Scientists claim to have mapped most of the tectonic plates, ancient and recent, which  they define as slabs of crust in the Mantle under Earth's surface geology. Modeling has invariably been used - but so too has some interesting field research. Some of these slabs, we are informed, sank into the Mantle at depths such as 10,000 miles. This is perhaps a guesstimate as it conforms to Plate Theory a bit too neatly.

Bursts in sea levels

At https://phys.org/print427601705.html ... scientists have discovered sea levels did not rise slowly after the end of the Ice Age but rose in a series of steep bursts. These abrupt changes fit a catastrophist model but not necessarily a uniformitarian one. The research is published in Nature Communications (Oct 2017) and may cause a rethink on the waters around the UK. Currently, we have a smoothed rise in sea levels, with a leap around 8000 years ago. Since that date sea levels do not seem to have varied greatly - not by any dramatic degree.

Naples

Meanwhile, Scientific American asks - will Italy's supervolcano erupt soon?(sent in by Jovan) - go to www.scientificamerican.com/article/will-italy-rsquo-s-ominous-supervolca... .... this question  comes a few weeks after an 11 year old boy ventured on to an old volcano near Naples and fell into a fissure. His parents tried to pull him out but floor of the crater crumbled and they all died - watched by a younger child.

Old Faithful

The Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park attracts millions of visitors ( see https://phys.org/print426478631.html ... but little is known about the geology of the Park - or the fluid pathway from below the surface. This has now been rectified to a certain degree as University of Utah earth scientists have mapped some of the geology following a seismic survey (and is published in Geophysical Research Letters, Oct 2017).