A nomadic empire that arose on the Mongolian steppes – 1500 years prior to Genghis Khan’s Mongol empire. The Xoingnu traded with the Roman empire in the West and Imperial China in the East. Their proficiency at mounted warfare made them formidable – threatening China. They ended up building the Great Wall in response to the depradations of the Xoingnu. Now we have an interesting DNA study that shows that new migrants to Mongol in around 200BC were the initial stage of welding various peoples into a united whole. This is itself an interesting date as Mike Baillie, Queens University Belfast, flagged up a low growth tree ring event in around 207/6BC. Was this the impetus behind the migration – and how far did they travel?We ay also note the Xoingnu empire coincided with the Roman warm period when temperatures in Mongolia would have been much warmer than they are in the modern world. Lots of gass and pasture for their animals.
A genetic invesigation, including using skeletal material from two cemeteries on the imperial frontier, has been published in Science Advances. It showed up a certain amount of ethnic deversity – suggesting a multi-ethnic political formation, with inter-marraige between the various tribal groups.
It seems Egyptian archaeologists refute the idea Ramses II could have been the pharaoh of the Exodus – and they seem to have good reasons for that view.
Over at https://www.kujataa.gl/en-gb/Agriculture-in-Greenland …. When the Norse disappeared , late 14th or early 15th centuries, Greenland was without agriculture for around 300 years – until the late 17th/early 18th centuries.