The ruins of a 5000 years old tomb have been unearthed in Orkney – see https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2023/oct/21/a-neolithic-feat-of-engineering-orkney-dig-reveals-ruins-of-huge-tombs … In fact, all the archaeological action appears to be taking place in the Orkney Islands at present. Remarkable discoveries have been unearthed. In the new tomb some 14 skeletons have been found and it is assumed the dead are related, or were entombed as a result of their status. Genetic research on the bones will reveal if that is true.
It dates from around 3000BC – contemporary with the Piora Oscillation. When they removed top soild they found a round tomb space within a rectangular chamber surrounded by 6 cells with curved walls or banks. The interior was around 7m to 8m across and the roof was corbelled. Stones were built up gradually to create chambers that curved as they rose. The tomb had been flattened and largely destroyed in the 18th or 19th centuries. Many of the stones were robbed for a nearby building. Hence, it is the underground part that has survived intact. Hugo Anderson-Whymark, tracked down the tomb afte reading a couple of sentences about it from a report from over a hundred years ago. The report was archaeological. The site was found sitting beneath green fields.
At https://phys.org/news/2023-11-archaeological-skull-fragments-ukraine-reveal.html … the skull fragments were found on the Crimea peninsular, currently in Russian hands. They are said to be skulls of early modern humans and seem to have arrived from the east. How did modern humans arrive in Europe and western Asia? Two skull fragments dating from 37,000 to 36,000 years ago are at the heart of the story. It therefore relies on the reliability of those dates. What is clear is that the two people concerned lived shortly after the Laschamp Event – which is dated at around 40,000 years ago [although the exact date keeps changing]. It is those changing dates that make this story somewhat challenging. However, the general thinking seems to be clear. This is that earlier modern humans mated with Neanderthals in order to retain some of their genome – even in modern Europeans. If you read the link the Laschamp Event is described as an Ice Age – a recognition it involved a sharp drop in global temperatures. However, it was also an extinction event – which included the disappearance of the Neanderthals. In fact, we are told that volcanoes and general upheaval wiped out the Neanderthals in Europe as well as in western Asia and Siberia. Yet, these modern humans managed to survive and went on to rehabit Europe = the Gravettian culture.
Later, we are told that modern humans migrated from Africa 60,000 years ago. Another case of moving the goal posts. Archaeologically, it would seem, Laschasmp marks the transition beween the Middle Palaeolithic, 250,000 to 30,000 years ago, and the Late Palaeolithic, 40,000 to 10,000 years ago. Nicely boxed up and presented. Note the first date is not 40,000 but 30,000 years ago – which marks the start of the Late Glacial Maximum. This also marks the evidence of an ice cap in NE North America and NW Europe. The strongest genetic link is between the Crimean skulls and the Gravettians. The assumption is that earlier modern humans in Europe and western Asia disappeared along with the Neanderthals and many mammals. It seems a rather complicated scenario.
At https://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/2023/10/22/mohenjo-dara/ … whatever you think about the ruins of their towns, in the Indus Valley, one can’t help but draw a parallel with Tall el-Hammam. These are dated to between 3000 and 2500BC – and once again the dates are not firm to one of the other event. It seems that walls, pottery, and other times in the city of Mohenjo Dara had been turned into a kind of glass. Now go to the archaeological report at Hammam. See the similarities. Thunderbolts even tells us the ruins had been exposed to thermal energyu equvialent to 1500 degrees Celsius. However, Thunderbolts is not very keen on meteors, or asteroids, and we are told gigantic plasma discharges were to blame – in the form of thunder bolts [cosmic lightning], as well as electric arcs. This is what turned much of mohenjo Dara into glassified destruction, they add.