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Hunga Tonga Weather

13 June 2024
Catastrophism, Climate change, Geology

At https://www.sciencealert.com/giant-tonga-volcanic-eruption-could-disrupt-weather-for-years-to-come … The Hunga Tonga Ha’apai submarine volcano, which erupted in 2022, is the subject of a new study in the journal Climate. It explores the climate impact of the eruption, which lifted a huge plume of water into the stratosphere, among other things. They say it  can explain last year’s extraordinary large ozone hole and the wet weather of the last year in some parts of the world. That has clearly continued into 2024 in Britain and NW Europe as summer seems a tantalising date on the calendar that is hidden by hordes of dark clouds in the sky. The findings are that it could affect weather for an unknown period in the future. Years and years of wet weather.

Obviously, other factors are important as well. The ozone hole may also have something to do with the Sun’s activity in mid cycle. CMEs have the ability to redistribute ozone at the poles – moving it into the temperate zone, temporarily. The effect of all that water vapour in the upper atmosphere is currently an unknown. It is thought the stratosphere is normally a fairly dry location. Again, the so called warm weather in other parts of the world, away from the cloud track, may also have something to do with high activity on the Sun – and a succession of CMEs. Then there was the El Nino of last year. A feeble El Nino in some ways, but capable of moving warm water, and therefore stored heat in the oceans, around the globe.

At https://phys.org/news/2024-05-cryovolcanism-life-earth.html …. a discussion on cryovolcanism – ice volcanism. The physics of the process, it seems, are not well understood. In other words the facts do not fit the theory. The same consensus is used to explain what is going on in other worlds such as Enceladus, Europa, and Gannymede. It includes comet activity.

At https://phys.org/news/2024-05-black-holes-fascinating.html … another discussion. This time the subject is black holes. Gravity, we are told, is the most dominant force around black holes. Astrophysicists use a combination of theory and observation in order to construct what black holes may look like. Theory involves mathematical calculations. Computer models simulate them.

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